Interviews with groups within the       wooden enterprise were conducted the 25th of April and 20th of
May. The contributors had been Fersol, placed in the outskirts of Maputo and Secama in
Matola. Hermina Soares, public family members supervisor, changed into interviewed at Secama and Fernando
Jorge Souto, organisation owner, at Fersol.
The objective of the interviews was to assess what type of residues the wood industry
produces and and the technique of its disposal in order to analyze their capacity for
generating wooden pellets.
Five.2. Emission measurement
5.2.1. The Water Boiling Test
The 2003 revised University of California-Berkeley (UCB) Water Boiling Test (WBT)
Version 3.Zero, 2013, become used to assess the wooden gasification stove with numerous sorts of gas:
wood pellets, birch firewood and torrefied bamboo pellets. The WBT is a laboratory imitation
of simple cooking practice that can be done on most stoves whilst operating at both high
and low electricity. “While the take a look at isn’t always supposed to update different kinds of range evaluation, it’s miles
designed to be a simple approach through which stoves made in special locations and for one-of-a-kind
cooking programs may be as compared by way of a standardized and replicable protocol” (Bailis et
al., 2013). This particular test was selected because of its recurrence in reviews and different
writings by means of global experts inside the discipline.
The WBT consists of three phases: excessive energy stages (bloodless begin and warm begin) and one
low strength segment (simmering). In the first phase, cold start, the tester begins with the stove,
pot and five litres of water at room temperature. The water is brought to boil without a lid on.
(Bailis et al., 2013) This got here to be changed all through assessments with the torrefied bamboo pellets
because of its low energy. Lightening paper containing stearin became used to mild the fuels.
In the second one phase, fresh water at room temperature is boiled by means of a stove this is already hot.
This is to discover differences in overall performance and emissions among a hot and cold range.
The third segment is a low energy take a look at wherein the tester simmers the closing water at a
temperature approximately three°C under boiling factor for around 45 mins. The wooden mass,
the water mass and water temperature are every measured earlier than and between each of these
assessments. Measuring the range performance at both excessive and low electricity helps to simulate what is
likely to arise when cooking foods that involve boiling and simmering. The conventional subSaharan primary staple meals, xima, is cooked in this manner and the WBT is consequently a suitable
approach for evaluating the gas and range overall performance in the course of a cooking session. Xima is made
of maize meal, boiled with water to a paste harking back to porridge.
The WBT measures both particular gas consumption and the level of emissions (Tabrizi,
2014). This record focuses on emissions.
All fuels went thru three complete WBTs (i.E. 9 phases in general) in the wooden
gasification stove with the equal aluminium pot having a diameter of nineteen.Five cm. The torrefied
bamboo pellets had been most effective tested at some stage in WBTs (six levels) because the emissions had been
better than the most capability of the equipment and had glaringly unhealthy consequences on
the testers. As stated above, the WBT with bamboo pellets changed into executed with a lid to be
capable of reach boiling factor.
The stove turned into geared up with a fan to modify the secondary and primary airflow. To preserve as
many parameters as viable fixed, the fan become set to “medium” at some point of all of the stages of the
five.2.2. Measuring the exhaust
A standardized and usually hired method for shooting the emissions of cooking
stoves is the hood method. In that method, a hood is positioned over the stove to seize
emissions released at some stage in the burn cycle. By capturing the exhaust and measuring the drift
rate thru the hood, immediate adjustments in burning may be measured. Emissions
sampling is performed among the hood and a fan placed above the hood. The exhaust will
quiet down and dry concurrently thru natural dilution (Bond and Roden, 2013). This
technique was now not used in this observe due to economic and time restraints.
Measurements of emissions have been executed in a managed laboratory putting at the
Department of Energy and Technology, SLU, in connection with fuel consumption tests the use of
the WBT. The range turned into placed under a fume hood, where a carbon monoxide meter and
precise spectrometer have been attached, see Figure four. The sampling system turned into carried out
for the complete burning length, for the reason that strong gasoline emissions are variable each spatially and over
time. The sampling manner recorded over the complete burning duration, for the reason that emissions from
solid-gasoline burning are variable in each time and area. This consequences in a actual-time dimension
throughout the whole WBT. Unlike the hood technique, this approach measures the emissions at a
unique place.
Figure four. Setup in fume hood. Carbon monoxide meter attached to face and tube main to
an aerosol diluter, which in flip leads to a selected spectrometer.
Carbon monoxide size
For measurement of carbon monoxide a carbon monoxide logger, EL-USB-CO Lascar
electronics, changed into used. The CO logger changed into connected to a stand below the fume hood seventy five cm
above the stove. The logger consists of a sensor that measures the absorbency of infrared
radiation every 10 seconds. The concentration of CO in the air is provided each graphically
and as a table on the pc, while related by a USB cable.
Particulate count number sampling
Sampling of PM became performed the use of a specific count number meter, Climet CI-500EC, which is a
laser diode based aerosol particle counter. The most current date of calibration became fifth of July
2013. The particle counter can depend debris in a 0.Three µm-25 µm c program languageperiod, divided in six
particle channels.
In order to acquire the emitted debris, a hose became attached with sellotape on the wall in the
fume hood, 85 cm above the range, as shown in Figure 4. That hose became encrusted with
Teflon to minimise the quantity of debris attaching to the wall of the hose. Because of the
high attention of PM for the duration of combustion of stable fuels, an aerosol diluter turned into connected
between the hose and PM meter. The dilution component of the aerosol diluter changed into 1:one hundred. The air
sample length of the PM meter at some stage in bloodless start and hot start turned into set to 0.02 m3
. The sample
length changed into elevated to zero.1 m3 throughout the simmering check due to the massive amount of facts it
could generate in any other case. The results have been published on thermal paper and manually
transcribed to Excel.
The historical past PM turned into measured inside the fume hood earlier than each WBT. Since the air inside the
fume hood turned into constantly exchanged and due to the low values of PM, the history
PM became envisioned to 0. The airflow turned into additionally automa

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